Tuesday, October 7, 2008


3D computer graphics


The process of creating 3D computer graphics can be sequentially divided into three basic phases: 3D modelinganimation which describes the motionplacement of objects within a scene, and 3D rendering which produces an image of an object. which describes the process of forming the shape of an object, layout and and

The model describes the process of forming the shape of an object. The two most common sources of 3D models are those originated on the computer by an artist or engineer using some kind of 3D modeling tool, and those scanned into a computer from real-world objects. Models can also be produced procedurally or via physical simulation.

Layout and animation

Main article: Computer animation

Before objects are rendered, they must be placed (laid out) within a scene. This is what defines the spatial relationships between objects in a scene including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal description of an object, i.e., how it moves and deforms over time. Popular methods include keyframing, inverse kinematics, and motion capture, though many of these techniques are used in conjunction with each-other. As with modeling, physical simulation is another way of specifying motion.

During the 3D rendering step, the number of reflections “light rays” can take, as well as various other attributes, can be tailored to achieve a desired visual eff


Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get photorealistic images, or by applying some kind of style as in non-photorealistic rendering. The two basic operations in realistic rendering are transport (how much light gets from one place to another) and scattering (how surfaces interact with light). This step is usually performed using 3D computer graphics software or a 3D graphics API. The process of altering the scene into a suitable form for ren

dering also involves 3D projection which allows a three-dimensional image to be viewed in two dimensions.

to 2D vector graphi

cs or 2D raster graphics on transparent layers. Visual artists may also copy or visualize 3D effects and manually render photorealistic effects without the use of filters. See also still life.[citation needed]


William Petter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1960,[citation needed] to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld (1976), which included an animation of a human face and hand — produced by Ed Catmull and Fred Parke at the University of Utah.


There are a multitude of websites designed to help educate and support 3D graphic artists. Some are managed by software developers and content providers, but there are standalone sites as well (such as Renderosity). These communities allow for members to seek advice, post tutorials, provide product reviews or post examples of their own work.

Distinct from photorealistic 2D graphics

Not all computer graphics that appear 3D are based on a wireframe model. 2D computer graphics with 3D photorealistic effects are often achieved without wireframe modeling and are sometimes indistinguishable in the final form. Some graphic art software includes filters that can be applied.

Friday, September 26, 2008



The lathe machine uses a single-point-cutting tool for a variety of turning, facing, and drilling jobs. Excess metal is removed by rotating the work piece over the fixed cutting tool to form straight or tapered cylindrical shapes, grooves, shoulders and screw threads. It can also be used for facing flat surfaces on the ends of cylindrical parts.
The work piece is clamped onto a horizontal rotating shaft by a 3-jaw or 4-jaw chuck. The latter chuck can be used to cut off-centered cylinders. The rotating horizontal spindle to which the chuck is attached is usually driven at speeds that can be varied.
The cutting tool is fixed onto a tool rest and manipulated by hand. It can also be power driven on straight paths parallel or perpendicular to the work axis. This is useful for screw cutting.
Internal turning known as boring results in the enlargement of an already existing hole. The holes are more accurate in roundness, concentricity, and parallelism than drilled holes. A hole is bored with a single-point-cutting tool that feeds along the inside of the workpiece.


20" Series Engine Lathes combine accuracy, simplicity and affordability to bring you a proven industry leader. Tested under the most demanding work conditions, this lathe turns rings around other lathes in their class. Longem 20" Series Lathes have just the right amount of engineering to afford simplicity of operation, coupled with plain and simple rugged reliability. In addition, built in safety features with the safety interlock eliminating the simultaneous engagement of the feed and threading motion, place these machines in a field of their own - unparalleled in performance.
A few of the outstanding features on the Longem 20" Series Lathes are a cross ribbed headstock for added strength and stability, with anti-friction mounted shafts and dynamically balanced components; hardened and ground alloy steel gears, shafts and splines, and an oversized precision chrome alloy spindle with a big 3-1/8" thru hole that is mounted in double row radial roller bearing in the front, single row radial thrust ball bearing and single direction thrust ball bearing at the rear and radial ball bearing in the middle. These large spindle bearings give the 17-24" Series Lathe greater radial and thrust capacities ensuring very precise turning capabilities.
Available in 40", 60" and 80" center distances, the Longem 20" Series Engine Lathe feature hardened and precision ground bed ways on a heavy one-piece close grain cast bed that is fully ribbed for maximum stability and even thermal expansion. Standard on every machine is a quick-change gearbox for cutting Metric, Module, and Diametrical Pitch threads as well as standard American threads.


  1. 10 HP main motor
  2. 56 kinds of inch threads
  3. 24 speeds from 11.2 to 1600 rpm
  4. Automatic longitudinal feed stop
  5. D1-8 camlock with 3 1/8" spindle bore
  6. Main spindle hardened & precision ground
  7. Bed made of fine grain high tensile cast iron
  8. Bedways induction hardened & precision ground
  9. All gears & shafts hardened & precision ground
  10. 4-way rapid traverse to carriage & cross slide
  11. Automatic lubrication system in headstock & feed box
  12. Main spindle supported at 3-point by precision bearings
  13. Fully clutched headstock for longer life & soft stop-start
  14. Automatic disengagement of hand wheel
  15. Unloading device in tailstock
  16. Carriage coated with Turcite-B for smooth movement and wear resistance


Standard accessories:

  • 12" (315mm) 3-jaw scroll chuck
  • 16" (400mm) 4-jaw chuck
  • 20" (500mm) face plate
  • drive plate
  • follow rest
  • "T" slot style compound
  • 4-way toolpost
  • 4-way rapid traverse
  • full length splash guard
  • chip pan
  • centers & sleeves
  • pedal brake device
  • coolant system
  • work light
  • instruction manual
  • tool kits

Optional accessories:
  • 2-AXIS digital readout
  • taper turning attachment
  • 10" (250mm) big steady rest with rollers
  • quick change toolpost with holders
  • chuck guard
  • travel guard
  • thread chasing dial
  • machine mounts

Tuesday, September 16, 2008



Although small in size, Perlis is not without its attractions, foremost among which is its serene unspoilt beauty, rustic rural scenes and vast padi fields. Even the state capital is bordered by an expanse of verdant padi fields, making the landscape appear like a huge color-field of brilliant green or gold, depending on the season.


Perlis, the smallest state in Malaysia, lies at the northwestern extremity of the Malay Peninsula; its western coastline borders the Straits of Malacca. Bounded by Thailand in the north, and by Kedah to the east and south, it measures approximately 759 sq. km and has a population of 175,000. Kangar is the seat of the State Government.


The state economy is dominated by agriculture, with rice, sugar and fruits predominating. Forestry and fishery is also important, and the state is making efforts to attract small and medium scale manufacturing industries. During the Japanese occupation of Malaya, the raja of Perlis was Syed Hamzah Jamalullail but the Siamese Government also appointed their own Governor in Perlis by the name of Udom Boonyaprasop. The Japanese lost the War and the British returned as colonialists again and decided to replace Raja Syed Hamzah with Syed Putra Jamalullail who reigned over the smallest State in Malaya and later Malaysia both in terms of size, revenue and population.